This Day in American History

This Day in American History

     1772 – The “Washington and Jefferson Snowstorm” occurred. George Washington reported three feet of snow at Mount Vernon and Thomas Jefferson recorded about three feet at Monticello.
1778 – Marines landed at New Providence, Bahamas and the American flag flew over foreign soil for the first time. The first American soldiers sent forth from the fledgling nation’s shores were a detachment of Marines. That amphibious raid, the first in what remains today a Marine specialty, aimed to seize guns and gunpowder from a British fort.
1785 – The University of Georgia was founded, the first public university in the United States.
1805 – Southeastern New York and New England were in the middle of a 3 day snowstorm. Snow fell continuously for 48 hours in New York City where two feet reportedly accumulated.
1810 – The third U.S. Census recorded a population of 7,239,881, an increase of 1,931,298 over the 1800 Census. The 1810 census included one new state: Ohio. Black population rose by 481,361 to 1,278,110. Of this total, 186,746 were free citizens, a group omitted in the 1800 census. The center of population moved to a point 40 miles northwest of Washington, DC.
1825 – Congress approved Indian Territory in what is present-day Oklahoma, clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the “Trail of Tears.”   The Indian Removal Act of 1830 included members of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, removing them from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast to an area west of the Mississippi River.  The relocated people suffered from exposure, disease and starvation while en route, and more than ten thousand died before reaching their various destinations.
1830 – The landmark Webster-Hayne debates took place January 19-27. They began when Senator Samuel A. Foot of Connecticut offered a resolution to restrain sale of public lands in the West. Sen. Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri replied by declaring that eastern interests were trying to check the prosperity of the West. He was supported by Sen. Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina, who defended states’ rights. Hayne stated that “the very life of our system is the independence of the states, and that there is no evil more to be depreciated than the consolidation of this government.” Sen. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts replied by criticizing the tendency of some senators “to habitually speak of the union in terms of indifference, or even of disparagement.” The debate evolved into a discussion of the powers of the Constitution and the nature of the Union. In his speech of Jan. 26-27, Webster declared that the states were sovereign only in that area where their power is not qualified by the Constitution, and that the Constitution and the government were sovereign over the people. “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!” was included in the speech delivered by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts in debate with Sen. Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina. Webster held that the union was stronger than the separate states, and that its acts could not be nullified by them.
1832 – Lewis Carroll (d. 1898) was born Charles Lutwidge Dodgson in England.  His most famous writings are “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland”, its sequel “Through the Looking Glass”, which includes the poem “Jabberwocky”, and the poem “The Hunting of the Snark”, all examples of the genre of literary nonsense. He is noted for his facility at word play, logic, and fantasy.
1850 – Birthday of Samuel Gompers (d. 1924), one of the key figures of the U.S labor movement, was born in England. In 1863, Gompers emigrated to New York with his family and soon joined his father working as a cigar maker in various New York sweatshops. Although he became heavily involved in the cigar makers’ union, Gompers was hardly an advocate of labor’s more left-leaning tendencies. As he rose to prominence in the union, Gompers gradually articulated his belief in strikes and boycotts tempered by responsibility and reason. In addition, he focused almost solely on economic goals and hailed binding contracts as a key to improving the lives of workers. In 1886, Gompers spearheaded the formation of the American Federation of Labor (A.F. of L.) He ruled the A.F. of L. for forty years, save for 1895, when a brief burst of socialist sentiment forced him out of office. Gompers shaped the A.F. of L. into his conservative ideal, leading the organization to eschew overt political affiliations, most notably radicalism, in favor of broad patriotic values. However, as employers and politicians increasingly marshaled tough tactics to quell the rising tide of labor, Gompers was forced to choose sides, and in 1908, he supported William Jennings Bryan’s failed run for the Oval Office. A few years later, Gompers became a fierce ally of President Woodrow Wilson, and Gompers used the pulpit of the A.F. of L., as well as the recently formed Pan American Labor Federation, to push the government’s policy in World War I.
1870 – At the then Indian Asbury University, Kappa Alpha Theta, the first women’s Greek letter society, or sorority, was founded. The university is now called DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana.
1870 – Virginia ratified the 15th Amendment and was readmitted to the Union.
1880 – Thomas Alva Edison patented the electric incandescent lamp.
1885 – Birthday of Jerome Kern (d. 1945), American composer, New York City. In addition to scores for stage and screen, Kern wrote many memorable songs, including “Ol’ Man River,” “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes,” “I Won’t Dance,” “The Way You Look Tonight,“ “All the Things You Are,” and “The Last Time I Saw Paris.”
1888 – In Washington, D.C., the National Geographic Society was founded.
1894 – The University of Chicago played its first basketball game, beating the Chicago YMCA Training School 19-11. The University of Chicago became the first basketball team to play a full schedule of games, ending with a 6-1 record.
1900 – Birthday of Hyman Rickover (d. 1986) in Russia.  American naval officer, known as the “Father of the Nuclear Navy.” Admiral Rickover directed development of nuclear reactor powered submarines, the first of which was the Nautilus, launched in 1954. Rickover was noted for his blunt remarks: “To increase the efficiency of the Department of Defense,” he said, “you must first abolish it.” The four-star admiral was forced to retire at the age of 81, after 63 years in the Navy. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
1901 – Art Rooney (d. 1988) was born in Coulterville, PA.  He founded the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1933. Since the league’s inception in 1920, the NFL had wanted a team in Pittsburgh due to the city’s already-long history with football and when the state of Pennsylvania relaxed its blue laws against Sunday activities, they finally awarded the franchise to Rooney.  After decades as the NFL’s doormats, they won four Super Bowls while Rooney was still CEO.
1908 – Birthday of trumpet player Oran “Hot Lips” Page (d. 1954), Dallas.
1918 – Birthday of bandleader Lyle Russell “Skitch” Henderson (d. 2005), Halstad, MN.  Best known as the bandleader for “The Tonight Show” with Steve Allen and then Johnny Carson.
1918 – The first Tarzan film, “Tarzan of the Apes”, is released. The silent movie, based on Edgar Rice Burroughs’ novel, was the first in a long line of Tarzan productions. Olympic champion swimmer Johnny Weissmuller starred in 11 Tarzan movies from 1932 to 1948 and contributed Tarzan’s signature yodel to the TV show, which ran from 1966 to 1969. The character was also featured in a radio show starting in 1932 and in a long-running comic strip.
1921 – Birthday of Donna Reed (d. 1986), born Donna Belle Mullenger, Dennison, IA.   She who won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in “From Here to Eternity” (1954). Also remembered for her role in “It’s a Wonderful Life,” but perhaps best known for her TV series “The Donna Reed Show” (1958-1966), winning 1963 Golden Globe for Best TV Star–female.
1927 – The Harlem Globetrotters opened their first tour with a game in Hinckley, IL. Founded by Abe Saperstein as a spin-off from the great Harlem Renaissance team, the Globetrotters quickly became fan favorites around the world.
1927 – Birthday of jazz pianist Don Shirley (d. 2013), Kingston, Jamaica.
1930 – Birthday of Bobby ‘Blue’ Bland was born Robert Calvin Brooks, Rosemont, TN. Rock ‘n’ Roll Hall of Fame singer: “That’s the Way Love Is,” “Call on Me,” “Turn on Your Love Light,” “Ain’t Nothin’ You Can Do.”  Original group: The Beale Streeters with Johnny Ace. His grainy vocal style is a mixture of gospel and blues, and he had considerable influence on singers as diverse as Rod Stewart and Al Green. “Call on Me” and “That’s the Way Love Is” was a double-sided million-seller for Bland in 1963. But white audiences didn’t begin to buy his records until he recorded his “California Album” and “Dreamin'” in the early ’70s. They proved to be the most popular LPs of his career. When I lived in New Orleans for a long summer in 1958 with my friend Warren Luening, Jr. and his family, Bobby “Blue” Bland was number one on the radio. I could do a pretty good impression of Bobby “Blue” Bland, including imitating his stand and manners. I knew most of his songs by heart. I have never missed a chance to see him when he was in the San Francisco Bay Area, including spending my birthdays after midnight, at his New Year’s Eve Show, at the San Carlos Circle Star Theater. (B.B.King also shared the stage.)
1931 – Birthday of Rudy Maugeri (d. 2004), baritone singer and arranger for the Crew-Cuts, in Toronto, Canada. All four members of the group were students at St. Michael’s Cathedral Choir School in Toronto. They were discovered in 1954 by Mercury Records while they were singing in Cleveland under the name of the Canadaires. They became the Crew-Cuts after the popular hair style of the time. One of the first white groups to record rock ‘n’ roll versions of black rhythm-and-blues hits, the Crew Cuts are best known for their 1954 million-seller “Sh-Boom.”
1933 – Jerry Buss (d. 2013) was born in Salt Lake City.  He was the majority owner of the LA Lakers NBA championship team, winning 10 titles that were highlighted by the team’s Showtime era during the 1980s. He is a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor. Buss also owned other professional sports franchises in Southern California.
1936 – Actor Troy Donahue (d. 2001) was born Merle Johnson, Jr. in NYC.  Donahue became a popular male sex symbol of the 1950s and 1960s.
1939 – Birthday of Julius Lester, re-teller of legends and folklore of the American South, born St. Louis, Missouri. Since the early 1970’s, Lester has served as a professor at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
1941 – Birthday of vibe player Bobby Hutcherson, Los Angeles, CA
1943 – The first air attack on Germany by the Army Air Force in World War II was made by the 8th Air Force led by Brigadier General Haywood Shepherd Hansell III from bases in England. The targets were naval bases and docks at Wilhelmshaven and factories in Emden in northwest Germany. The Americans lost three planes on the mission, two Liberators and one Flying Fortress. Of 64 planes participating in the raid, 53 reached their targets. The German loss was 22 fighter airplanes and 3 bombers. The B-17 Flying Fortresses, capable of sustaining heavy damage while continuing to fly, and the B-24 Liberators, long-range bombers, became famous for precision bombing raids. The premier example was the raid on Wilhelmshaven, commanded by Brig. Gen. Newton Longfellow. The 8th Air Force was amazingly effective and accurate in bombing warehouses and factories in this first air attack against the Axis power.
1944 – The siege of Leningrad began with German bombing of the city. The bombing continued for 430 hours. The suffering of the people of Leningrad during the 880 day siege was one of the greatest tragedies of World War II. More than half the population of Russian’s second largest city died during the winter of 1942. The siege finally ended on January 27, 1944.
1944 – The Boston Braves fired manager Casey Stengel, who becomes the victim of an ownership change.  After Stengel achieved success at the helm of the Oakland Oaks of the Pacific Coast League, he went on to become manager of the New York Yankees in 1948. He won the World Series in each year from 1949-53, the only manager to do so in Major League history. He took the Yankees to the World Series every year but 1954 and 1959 during his tenure that ended after the 1960 Series. Famous Stengelisms include: “The Yankees don’t pay me to win every day – just two out of three”; “The secret of managing a club is to keep the five guys who hate you away from the five guys who are undecided”; and “You have to draft a catcher, because if you don’t have one, the ball will roll all the way back to the screen.” When he was fired after losing the 1960 World Series, he quipped, “I’ll never make the mistake of being 70 again.”  He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1966.
1945 – The Russians liberated the Auschwitz concentration camp, where the Nazis had murdered 1.5 million men, women and children, including more than one million Jews.
1947 – Top Hits
For Sentimental Reasons – Nat King Cole
A Gal in Calico – Johnny Mercer
Ole Buttermilk Sky – The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids)
Rainbow at Midnight – Ernest Tubb
1948 – Wire Recording Corporation of America unveiled the first magnetic tape recorder, the ‘Wireway’ machine containing a built-in oscillator. It sold for $149.50.
1951 – Nuclear testing began at the Nevada Test Site with a one-kiloton bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat.
1955 – Birthday of John G. Roberts, Jr., Chief Justice of the US, born Buffalo, NY.
1955 – Top Hits
“Mr. Sandman” – The Chordettes
“Let Me Go, Lover!” – Teresa Brewer
“Earth Angel (Will You Be Mine)” – The Penguins
“Loose Talk” – Carl Smith
1956 – Elvis Presley, “Heartbreak Hotel” released today.
1958 – Birthday of country singer Tracy Lawrence, Atlanta, TX.
1958 – Little Richard enters Oakwood College in Huntsville, Alabama. It’s a school for blacks run by the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Little Richard explains while flying over the Philippines on tour, the wing on his plane caught fire and his prayers that the flames go out were answered. As a result, he says he’s giving up rock and roll so he can serve God.
1959 – Birthday of Anthony Cris Collinsworth, sportscaster, former football player, born Dayton, OH.
1961 – Leontyne Price debuted at New York’s Metropolitan Opera House, singing the role of Leonora in “Il Trovatore”. Price was the seventh black singer to make a debut at the Met, the first was Marian Anderson in 1955.
1962 – Elvis Presley received his 29th gold record for “Can’t Help Falling in Love”, just weeks after receiving one for the soundtrack to his seventh movie, “Blue Hawaii”.
1962 – Joey Dee and the Starliters’ “Peppermint Twist” hits #1
1962 – Benny Goodman Band enplanes for Soviet tour; first jazz band to play Russia.
1963 – Top Hits
“Walk Right In” – The Rooftop Singers
“Hey Paula” – Paul & Paula
“Tell Him” – The Exciters
“The Ballad of Jed Clampett” – Flatt & Scruggs
1964 – Senator Margaret Chase Smith (R-MA) announces her candidacy for President of the United States at a Women’s National Press Club luncheon. In her statement, she acknowledged that many think that “No woman should ever dare to aspire to the White House – and that this is a man’s world and should be kept that way.” She received 27 votes at the national convention which nominated Barry Goldwater.
1966 – Oswego, NY, was in the midst of a five day lake effect storm which left the town buried under 102 inches of snow.
1967 – During a preflight test for what was to be the first manned Apollo mission, a fire claimed the lives of three U.S. astronauts; Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee. After the disaster, the mission was officially designated Apollo 1. The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. Six of the missions (Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17) achieved this goal. Apollo 7 and 9 were Earth orbiting missions to test the Command and Lunar Modules, and did not return lunar data. Apollo 8 and 10 tested various components while orbiting the Moon, and returned photography of the lunar surface. Apollo 13 did not land on the Moon due to a malfunction, but also returned photographs. The six missions that landed on the Moon returned a wealth of scientific data and almost 400 kilograms of lunar samples. Experiments included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind experiments.
1967 – EVANS, DONALD W., JR., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 12 Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Tri Tam, Republic of Vietnam, 27 January 1967. Entered service at: Covina, Calif. Born: 23 July 1943, Covina, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. He left his position of relative safety with his platoon which had not yet been committed to the battle to answer the calls for medical aid from the wounded men of another platoon which was heavily engaged with the enemy force. Dashing across 100 meters of open area through a withering hail of enemy fire and exploding grenades, he administered lifesaving treatment to 1 individual and continued to expose himself to the deadly enemy fire as he moved to treat each of the other wounded men and to offer them encouragement. Realizing that the wounds of 1 man required immediate attention, Sp4c. Evans dragged the injured soldier back across the dangerous fire-swept area, to a secure position from which he could be further evacuated. Miraculously escaping the enemy fusillade, Sp4c. Evans returned to the forward location. As he continued the treatment of the wounded, he was struck by fragments from an enemy grenade. Despite his serious and painful injury he succeeded in evacuating another wounded comrade, rejoined his platoon as it was committed to battle and was soon treating other wounded soldiers. As he evacuated another wounded man across the fire covered field, he was severely wounded. Continuing to refuse medical attention and ignoring advice to remain behind, he managed with his waning strength to move yet another wounded comrade across the dangerous open area to safety. Disregarding his painful wounds and seriously weakened from profuse bleeding, he continued his lifesaving medical aid and was killed while treating another wounded comrade. Sp4c. Evan’s extraordinary valor, dedication and indomitable spirit saved the lives of several of his fellow soldiers, served as an inspiration to the men of his company, were instrumental in the success of their mission, and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
1967 – Residents of Chicago, IL, began to dig out from a storm which produced 23 inches of snow in 29 hours. The snow paralyzed the city and suburbs for days, and business losses were enormous
1967 – The United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union signed the Outer Space Treaty in Washington, DC, banning deployment of nuclear weapons in space, and limiting use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes.  “Gort, Klaatu barada nikto.”
1968 – Seven weeks after singer Otis Redding’s death, his song “(Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay” was released. It hit #1 on March 16, 1968, staying at the top for a month. In 1960, Redding began his recording career with Johnny Jenkins and The Pinetoppers on Confederate Records. He sang duet with Carla Thomas and charted 11 hits. Redding, from Dawson, Georgia, died in a plane crash at Lake Monona near Madison, Wisconsin. The crash also killed four members of the Bar-Kays. “The Dock of the Bay”, Redding’s only number one song, was recorded three days before his death.
1968 – The Bee Gees gave their first American concert as a group, earning $50,000 to play at the Anaheim Convention Center in California. The Beatles were paid the same amount to perform at the Hollywood Bowl a few years prior.
1971 – The first US postage stamp depicting a Jew was the three-cent bright red-violet postage stamp to commemorate the centenary of the birth of labor leaser Samuel Gompers, one of the founders of the American Federal of Labor. The stamps were printed by rotary press, 70 stamps to the pane.
1971 – Top Hits
“Knock Three Times” – Dawn
“Lonely Days” – Bee Gees
“Stoney End” – Barbra Streisand
“Rose Garden” – Lynn Anderson
1972 – The New Seekers received a gold record for “I’d Like to Teach the World to Sing” on this date. The song was an effective campaign tool for Coca-Cola television commercials.
1973 – DVN Day. The US and North Vietnam, along with South Vietnam and the Viet Cong, signed the official “Agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam.” Signed at Paris, France, to take effect January 28 at 8 AM Saigon time, thus ending US combat role in a war that had involved American personnel stationed in Vietnam since defeated French forces had departed under terms in the Geneva Accords in 1954.  Thus ended the longest war in US history. This is the same agreement as was drafted the previous October.
3 million Americans were enlisted in the military
47,366 Americans died in combat in the Vietnam war
· 275,000 Americans experience a death in their family
· 1.4 million saw someone in their family wounded
· 6.5 million served in armed forces, 1 million+ saw combat
Peace negotiations between the United States and North Vietnam had been ongoing since 1968. Richard Nixon was elected President that year, largely on the basis of his promise to find a way to “peace with honor” in Vietnam. Four years later, after the deaths of thousands more American servicemen, South Vietnamese soldiers, North Vietnamese soldiers, and Viet Cong fighters, the Paris Peace Accords were signed, and America’s participation in the struggle in Vietnam came to a close. Most Americans were relieved simply to be out of the Vietnam quagmire. At home, the war seriously fractured the consensus about the Cold War that had been established in the period after World War II–simple appeals to fighting the red threat of communism would no longer be sufficient to move the American nation to commit its prestige, manpower, and money to foreign conflicts. For Vietnam, the accords meant little. The cease-fire almost immediately collapsed, with recriminations and accusations flying from both sides. In 1975, the North Vietnamese launched a massive military offensive, crushed the South Vietnamese forces, and reunified Vietnam under communist rule. Contrary to popular belief, both the Korean War and Viet Nam War were bad for the economy, resulting in areas of high unemployment, high inflation, and a larger disparity in income between the wealthy and not wealthy. Richard Nixon inherited this from Lyndon Johnson who in turn took over from John F. Kennedy who inherited it from Dwight Eisenhower. Whether President Kennedy would have listened to the public, or not have been fooled by the military as history has shown Johnson was fooled, is debated by historians. It cost Johnson the election, and he shortly thereafter died a broken man. Ironically, within weeks of the departure of American troops, the war between North and South Vietnam resumed. For the Vietnamese that remained and did not flee to the United States, the war didn’t end until April 30, 1975, when Saigon fell to Communist forces. Today we not only trade
with the country, but have built American industrial plants in North Viet Nam.
1973 – The UCLA Bruins, led by center Bill Walton, beat Notre Dame, 82-63, to set an NCAA record with their 61st consecutive victory. The Bruins broke the record set by the University of San Francisco in 1956 when Bill Russell played center for the Dons.
1976 – “Laverne and Shirley” premiered on TV. This ABC sitcom was a spin-off of the popular TV show “Happy Days” that was also set during the 50’s in Milwaukee, WI. Penny Marshall, sister of series co-creator, Garry Marshall, starred as Laverne DeFazio with Cindy Williams as Shirley Feeney. The two friends worked at a brewery and shared a basement apartment. Also featured in the cast were Phil Foster as Laverne’s father, Frank DeFazio; David L. Lander as co-worker Andrew ‘Squiggy” Sguiggman; Michael McKean as co-worker Lenny Kosnowski; Betty Garrett as landlady Edna Babis and Eddie Mekka as Carmine Ragusa, Shirley’s sometime boyfriend.
1979 – Top Hits
“Le Freak” – Chic
“Y.M.C.A.” – Village People
“Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” – Rod Stewart
“Why Have You Left the One You Left Me For” – Crystal Gayle
1979 – Rod Stewart’s album “Blondes Have More Fun” became number one on the Billboard chart. Sales of the album were spurred by the single “Do Ya Think I’m Sexy?” and the success represented a comeback for Stewart.
1980 – Through cooperation between the U.S. and Canadian governments, six American diplomats secretly escaped Iran in the culmination of the ‘Canadian Caper’.  They had evaded capture during the seizure of the United States embassy in Tehran and the taking of embassy personnel as hostages on November 4, 1979.
1984 – Center Wayne Gretzky of the Edmonton Oilers scored a goal against the New Jersey Devils to extend his streak of scoring either a goal or an assist to 51 games, an NHL record. The Great One was stopped by the Los Angeles Kings, a team he later played for, the next night.
1984 – Michael Jackson suffered second degree burns to his scalp during the filming of a Pepsi commercial.
1987 – Top Hits
“At This Moment” – Billy Vera & The Beaters
“Open Your Heart” – Madonna
“Control” – Janet Jackson
“Cry Myself to Sleep” – The Judds
1989 – Michael Jackson gave what was billed as his last concert performance in Los Angeles. The show marked the end of Jackson’s “Bad” world tour, which had begun 16 months earlier in Japan. In the audience at the LA concert were such stars as Elizabeth Taylor, Jane Fonda, Phil Collins, Tiffany and members of Motley Crue. The “Bad” tour included 123 concerts in 15 countries, with a total attendance of 4.4-million and a box office gross of over 125-million dollars, both record figures. Jackson’s “Bad” LP sold more than 20-million copies worldwide.
1989 – The last half of January was bitterly cold over most of Alaska. Nearly thirty stations established all-time record low temperatures. On this date Tanana reported a low of -76 degrees. Daily highs of -66 degrees were reported at Chandalar Lake on the 22nd, and at Ambler on the 26th.
1990 – Another in a series of cold fronts brought high winds to the northwestern U.S., and more heavy snow to some of the higher elevations. The series of vigorous cold fronts crossing the area between the 23rd and the 27th of the month produced up to 60 inches of snow in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State.
1991 – The New York Giants defeated the Buffalo Bills 20-19, to win Super Bowl XXV. Buffalo kicker Scott Norwood saw his 47-year field goal attempt sail wide right with eight seconds to play. It is perhaps one of the most remembered losses in NFL history.
1991 – Whitney Houston performed “The Star-Spangled Banner” at the Super Bowl game – sort of. What the crowd heard was a pre-recorded version while Houston and an orchestra performed on the field. A blend of Houston’s live vocals and the pre-recorded version, released as a single, became a hit because of patriotism sparked by the Persian Gulf War.
1992 – Country singer Wynonna Judd made her debut as a solo artist on the American Music Awards show on ABC TV. The Judds, the award-winning duo of Wynonna and her mother Naomi, broke up in 1991 because of Naomi’s ill health.
1993 – Warner Brothers announced it was releasing Ice-T from his recording contract. The company cited “creative differences” for the decision, which followed the previous year’s controversy over Ice-T’s “Cop Killer.” Police and others said the track advocated the killing of police. Several of Ice-T’s concerts had to be cancelled when off-duty police refused to provide security for the shows. Ironically he went from a regular detective on “Homicide,” Baltimore, MD., to a key detective on “Law and Order, Criminal Intent”, New York City.
1993 – Fans at a Clovis, New Mexico club, expecting to see a group called Yukon Jack, got a shock when Garth Brooks and his band walked on stage. The surprise performance was arranged by Brooks’ booking agent – a longtime friend of the club’s owner.
1994 – A frigid arctic air was in place over New England and New York as a massive 1052 millibar high pressure provided ideal radiational cooling. Crown Point, NY dipped to 48 degrees below zero and Shoreham, VT shivered with 46 degrees below zero. Burlington, VT broke its old record daily low by 9 degrees with a reading of 29 degrees below zero and Caribou, ME set a record low for the third day in a row with a temperature of 23 degrees below zero
1997 – National Semiconductor agreed to sell its Fairchild Semiconductor business to the unit’s management. The separation of the two companies would allow National Semi to focus on expensive custom chips instead of high-volume, low-cost chips, which Fairchild specialized in.
1997 – Ottawa native Alanis Morissette’s “Jagged Little Pill” was named favorite album at the American Music Awards in Los Angeles. Presenter Paula Abdul accepted the award for Morissette, who was on vacation in India. Morissette was also picked as favorite female artist. Timmins, Ontario, native Shania Twain captured the trophy for best female country artist.
1998 – The Spice Girls’ “Girl Power: Live in Istanbul” video was released by Virgin Music Video, and was later certified platinum.
2005 – Month-to-date snowfall at Boston Logan International Airport totaled 43.1 inches, making January the snowiest month on record.
2006 – Western Union discontinued its telegram and Commercial Messaging services.
2010 – Steve Jobs CEO of Apple, unveiled a new invention, a tablet PC called the iPad, at a press conference in San Francisco.
2014 – Edward Snowden, the former National Security Agency contractor who had been granted temporary asylum in Russia, claimed that his decision to leak classified NSA documents about mining emails and telephone call logs has resulted in several significant threats to his life.
2014 – The U.S. Postal Service will soon implement a rate hike in postage, approved last December the price of first-class postage stamps to 49 cents from 46 cents.

Super Bowl Champions:
1991 – New York Giants

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