This Day in American History
1585 – A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, North Carolina and became England’s first foothold in the New World. Sir Walter Raleigh sent a detachment of 108 men to build a fort on the island. The detachment included two scientists, Thomas Hariot, a surveyor, mathematician, astronomer and oceanographer, and Joachim Gans, a metallurgist.
1729 – Birthday of Minuteman John Parker (d. 1775), Lexington, Massachusetts Bay Colony. “Stand your ground. Don’t fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here,” Captain John Parker to the Lexington patriot militia assembled on Lexington Green, preparing to fight the British at the Battle of Lexington. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul13.html
1787 – The Continental Congress enacted a slavery ban for a territory of the United States. The law prohibited slavery forever within the borders of the Northwest Territory. The Northwest Ordinance, also known as the Freedom Ordinance or The Ordinance of 1787, was approved by the Congress of the Confederation of the United States (the Confederation Congress). The ordinance created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States as the lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British North America and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south. The upper Mississippi River formed the Territory’s western boundary. It was the response to multiple pressures: the westward expansion of American settlers, tense diplomatic relations with Great Britain and Spain, violent confrontations with Indians, the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, and the empty treasury of the American government. Considered one of the most important legislative acts of the Confederation Congress, it established the precedent by which the Federal government would be sovereign and expand westward with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation. It was also precedent setting legislation with regard to American public domain lands.
1821 – Nathan Bedford Forrest (d. 1877) was born in Chapel Hill, TN. This is an official holiday in the State of Tennessee. A lieutenant general in the Confederate Army, he is remembered as a self-educated, brutal, and innovative cavalry leader during the Civil War and as a leading Southern advocate in the postwar years. He was a pledged delegate from Tennessee to the Democratic National Convention in New York in 1868. He served as the first Grand Wizard of the KKK, composed of many ex-Southern Civil War soldiers, but he later distanced himself from the organization.
1832 – Ethnologist Henry R. Schoolcraft was the first white person to arrive at the source of the Mississippi River at Lake Itasca, Minnesota. A pioneer in Native American studies, Schoolcraft conducted ethnological research among the Ojibwa in the Great Lakes region.
1861 – At the Battle of Corrick’s Ford, Virginia, the Union Army took total control of western Virginia (what is now West Virginia on the Cheat River) and it stayed that way for the rest of the war. The campaign propelled Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan to command of the Army of the Potomac.
1862 – The First Battle of Murfreesboro, an important Union supply center on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, was fought in Tennessee. Troops under Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest surprised and quickly overran a Federal hospital, the camps of several small Union units, and the jail and courthouse in Murfreesboro. All of the Union units surrendered to Forrest, and the Confederates destroyed much of the Union’s supplies and destroyed railroad track in the area. The primary consequence of the raid was the diversion of Union forces from a drive on Chattanooga and the deprivation of supplies.
1863 – Starting today and lasting until July 16, antidraft riots broke out in New York City. Modern history’s bloodiest riot began when a mob of 50,000 Civil War draft protesters burn buildings (including an orphan asylum), stores and draft offices, attack police. Some club, lynch and shoot large numbers of blacks, who they blamed for the war. Rioters were protesting the provision allowing true red-blooded flag-waving Americans to make cash payment in place of serving in the army. When troops returning from Gettysburg finally restored order, 1,200 were dead.
1863 – Mary Emma Woolley (d. 1947) birthday, S. Norwalk, CT. President of Mt. Holyoke College (1900- 1937) whose strong leadership expanded it to a major learning institution. She was voted one of the 12 most influential women in America.
1865 – Horace Greeley advises his readers to “Go west young man.” Greeley was editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. It was first stated by John Babsone Lane Soule in an 1851 editorial in the Terre Haute Express, “Go west young man, and grow up with the country.” Greeley later used the quote in his own editorial in 1865, favoring westward expansion. He saw the fertile farmland of the west as an ideal place for people willing to work hard for the opportunity to succeed. The phrase came to symbolize the idea that agriculture could solve many of the nation’s problems of poverty and unemployment characteristic of the big cities of the East. It is one of the most commonly quoted sayings from the nineteenth century and may have had some influence on the course of American history. Some sources have claimed the phrase is derived from the following advice in Greeley’s July 13, 1865 editorial in the New York Tribune, but this text does not appear in that issue of the newspaper. The actual editorial instead encourages Civil War veterans to take advantage of the Homestead Act and colonize the public lands: “Washington is not a place to live in. The rents are high, the food is bad, the dust is disgusting and the morals are deplorable. Go West, young man, go West and grow up with the country.”
1868 – Oscar J Dunn, former slave, installed as lieutenant governor of Louisiana. He became the first elected black lieutenant governor of a U.S. state, running on the ticket headed by Henry C. Warmoth, formerly of Illinois. After Dunn died in office, then-state Senator P.B.S. Pinchback, another black Republican, became lieutenant governor and thereafter governor for a 34-day interim period.
1869 – Street riots against Chinese laborers begin in San Francisco. The first significant Chinese immigration to North America began with the Gold Rush of 1848–1855 and continued with subsequent large labor projects, such as the building of the transcontinental railroad. During the early stages of the gold rush, when surface gold was plentiful, the Chinese were tolerated, if not well received. As gold became harder to find and competition increased, animosity toward the Chinese and other foreigners increased. After being forcibly driven from the mines, most Chinese settled in enclaves in cities, mainly San Francisco, and took up low-wage labor. The Chinese immigrant workers provided cheap labor and did not use any of the government infrastructure (schools, hospitals, etc.) because the Chinese migrant population was predominantly made up of healthy male adults. As time passed and more and more Chinese migrants arrived in California, violence would often break out until Congress passed legislation excluding the Chinese, but this was vetoed by President Hayes. www.chiamonline.org/Chronology/1850.htm
1886 – Birth of Father Edward Flanagan (d. 1948), Leabeg, Ireland. American Catholic parish priest. Believing there was ‘no such thing as a bad boy,’ in 1922, he organized Boys Town near Omaha, Nebraska.
1898 – The Ferry Building, at the foot of Market Street on the Bay in San Francisco, opened to the public. Designed in 1892 by American architect A. Page Brown in the Beaux Arts style, it was the largest project undertaken in the city up to that time. Brown designed the clock tower after the 12th-century Giralda bell tower in Seville, Spain, and the entire length of the building on both frontages is based on an arched arcade. The well-built reinforced building with its arched arcades survived both the 1906 and 1989 earthquakes with little damage. It served as the destination for commuters to San Francisco from the East Bay, who rode the ferry fleets of the Southern Pacific and the Key System.
1898 – Guillermo Marconi patented the radio. US Patent 997,308 for “Transmitting apparatus for wireless telegraphy”. Marconi made his first demonstration of his wireless transmission system for the British government in July, 1896. Numerous additional demonstrations followed, and Marconi began to receive international attention. In July 1897, he carried out a series of tests in his home country, for the Italian government. A test for Lloyds in Ireland was conducted on July 6, 1898. autumn of 1899, the first demonstrations in the United States took place, with the reporting of the America’s Cup international yacht races at New York. Marconi sailed to the United States at the invitation of the New York Herald newspaper to cover the races off Sandy Hook, NJ. The transmission was done aboard the SS Ponce, a passenger ship. Marconi left for England on November 8, 1899 on the SS St. Paul, and he and his assistants installed wireless equipment aboard during the voyage. On 15 November, Saint Paul became the first ocean liner to report her imminent return to Great Britain by wireless when Marconi’s Royal Needles Hotel radio station contacted her sixty-six nautical miles off the English coast. The role played by Marconi Co. wireless in maritime rescues raised public awareness of the value of radio and brought fame to Marconi, particularly the sinkings of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912 and the RMS Lusitania on May 7, 1915. Titanic radio operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were employed the Marconi International Marine Communications Company, not the ship line. After the sinking of the ocean liner, survivors were rescued by the RMS Carpathia. Also employed by the Marconi Company was David Sarnoff, who later headed RCA. Wireless communications were reportedly maintained for 72 hours between Carpathia and Sarnoff. When Carpathia docked in New York, Marconi went aboard with a reporter from The New York Times to talk with Bride, the surviving operator.
1913 – Dave Garroway (d. 1982), the first host of “Today” (1952-61), was born, Schenectady, NY.
1915 – Baltimore, MD, became the first city to support a City orchestra ( $6,000).
1923 – A sign consisting of 50-foot-tall letters spelling out “HOLLYWOODLAND” was dedicated in the Hollywood Hills to promote a subdivision (the last four letters were removed in 1949). Real estate developers Woodruff and Shoults called their development “Hollywoodland” and advertised it as a “superb environment without excessive cost on the Hollywood side of the hills.”
1930 – David Sarnoff reported in The New York Times, “TV would be a theater in every home.”
1934 – Babe Ruth hit his 700th career HR, in Detroit. He finished his career with 714, the record until Hank Aaron passed him in 1974.
1936 – 112ø F (44ø C), Mio, Michigan (state record)
1936 – 114ø F (46ø C), Wisconsin Dells, Wisc. (state record)
1938 – When the first television theatre opened in Boston, Massachusetts, spectators paid 25 cents to witness the event. Attended by 200 people, the variety show included dancing and singing, and lasted 45 minutes. The acts were transmitted to the room, by television, while they were being performed on the floor above the theatre.
1939 – Making his recording debut with the Harry James band was Frank Sinatra, who sang “Melancholy Mood” and “From the Bottom of My Heart.”
( lower half of: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul13.html )
1940 – Captain Jean-Luc Picard Birthday. Actually this is the birthday of the man who played Capt. Picard, Patrick Stewart, who was born in Mirfield, Yorkshire, England.
1946 – Top Hits
“They Say It’s Wonderful” – Frank Sinatra
“The Gypsy” – The Ink Spots
“I Don’t Know Enough About You” – The Mills Brothers
“New Spanish Two Step” – Bob Wills
1954 – Top Hits
“Little Things Mean a Lot” – Kitty Kallen
“Hernando’s Hideaway” – Archie Bleyer
“The Little Shoemaker” – The Gaylords
“Even Tho” – Webb Pierce
1959 – The Shirelles song, “Dedicated To The One I Love”, was released. The song only hit number 83 on “Billboard” magazine’s Top 100 chart. When the song was re- released in 1961, it went to number three on the charts.
1960 – Democratic National convention nominates Senator John F Kennedy for President.
1962 – Top Hits
“The Stripper” – David Rose
“Roses are Red” – Bobby Vinton
“Al Di La’” – Emilio Pericoli
“Wolverton Mountain” – Claude King
1963 – At the age of 43, Early Wynn pitches the first five innings to register his 300th win as the Indians down the Kansas City A’s, 7-4. It will be his last Major League win.
1968 – Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel’s album, “Bookends” is #1 for the third week in a row. That album along with the “Mrs. Robinson” soundtrack will give the duo 16 straight weeks at #1 on the L.P. charts.
1968 – Steppenwolf’s “Born To Be Wild” is released.
1970 – Top Hits
“Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” – Three Dog Night
“Ball of Confusion” – The Temptations
“Ride Captain Ride” – Blues Image
“He Loves Me All the Way” – Tammy Wynette
1971 – At the All-Star Game at Tiger Stadium at Detroit, Michigan, Reggie Jackson hit a home run off Doc Ellis. The ball bounced off a light tower deep in right field. With a score of 6-4, the American League won the game.
1972 – Baltimore Colts owner Carroll Rosenbloom and Los Angeles Rams owner Robert Irsay proposed a unique trade to the NFL, when the wealthy businessmen traded teams. Chicago industrialist Irsay purchased the Rams for $19 million from original Rams owner Dan Reeves, then traded the franchise to Rosenbloom for the Colts and cash. Rosenbloom holds the highest winning percentage in NFL history among owners, .660, and was dissatisfied with the stadium in Baltimore and the city’s unwillingness to upgrade it, thus prompting the trade of the teams. Coincidentally, it was this same issue that prompted Irsay to move the Colts to Indianapolis, and why the Rams eventually left LA for Anaheim before moving to St. Louis. Follow the bouncing ball…the Rams are back in LA for the 2016-17 season.
1973 – During a concert at the John Wayne Theatre in Buena Park, California, the Everly Brothers broke up. Right in the middle of the concert Phil Everly walked off the stage, brother Don said, “The Everly Brothers died ten years ago.” They joined together 1983 to sing with the “Simon and Garfunkle” Tour, as both Paul Simon and Art Garfunkle have acknowledged they started singing together to become just like their idols, the Everly Brothers. With Phil’s passing in 2014, the end of the Everly Brothers as an entertainment act was complete. One of Rock and Roll’s early successful and influential (particularly the Beatles) acts, the Everly Brothers were elected to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986 and the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2001.
1973 – Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the Nixon tapes to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break in.
1974 – George McCrae’s “Rock Your Baby” begins the first of two straight weeks at #1.
1974 – Eric Clapton’s “I Shot The Sheriff” is released.
1977 – A vast power failure plunged New York City and Westchester County into darkness last night, disrupting the lives of nearly nine million people. Thousands of subway riders were trapped in trains that stopped between stations. Homes and apartments went black. Thousands of people were trapped in elevators. Others stumbled and streamed from theaters, restaurants, and late-closing shops and office buildings. The power failed at 9:34 P.M., apparently when lightning struck a Consolidated Edison electrical transmission line in northern Westchester.
1978 – Top Hits
“Shadow Dancing” – Andy Gibb
“Baker Street” – Gerry Rafferty
“Take a Chance on Me” – Abba
“I Believe in You” – Mel Tillis
1980 – Afternoon highs of 108 degrees at Memphis, TN, 108 degrees at Macon, GA, and 105 degrees at Atlanta, GA, established all-time records for those three cities. The high of 110 degrees at Newington, GA, was just two degrees shy of the state record
1982 – In Montreal, Canada, the first All-Star Game to be played outside the United States took place. For the eleventh consecutive year, the National League won when it defeated the American League 4-1.
1984 – The Yankees retire Roger Maris (#9) and Elston Howard (#32) uniform numbers. The team also erect plaques in their honor to pay tribute to their achievements as Bronx Bombers. Maris is best remembered as the man who first broke Babe Ruth’s single season home run record when hit 61 in 1961, and although others have hit more, they have been identified as having used illegal PEDs. Many, many consider Maris to still hold the legitimate record. Maris appeared in seven World Series, five as a member of the Yankees and two with the Cardinals, winning three. Elston Howard was the first African-American to play for the Yankees and he succeeded the legendary Yogi Berra as the Yankee catcher. Howard was named AL MVP in 1963, becoming the first black player in AL history to win the honor. He appeared in ten World Series, winning four, and ranks among Series career leaders in several categories. He also won another two World Series as a coach. His lifetime slugging average of .427 ranked fourth among AL catchers at the time of his retirement.
1984 – When sportscaster Howard Cosell asked to leave “Monday Night Football,” saying he was “tired of being tied to the football mentality.” Roone Arledge gave him what he wanted, and a year later, Cosell was removed from television altogether.
1985 – Simultaneously, the “Live Aid” concert, for African famine relief, occurred in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and London, England. Performances from JFK Stadium in Philadelphia, London’s Wembley Stadium and other venues were broadcast world-wide and raising over $70 million. The all-day and most-of-the-night concert showcased some of rock ‘n’ roll’s biggest names including Mick Jagger, Tina Turner, Madonna, Bob Dylan and Paul McCartney. The concert was attended by 162,000 people, while 1.5 billion people watched the show from their televisions. Bob Geldorf, singer for Boomtown Rats organized the “Live Aid” concert and was responsible for gathering the big name stars, all of agreed to perform without pay.
1985 – “A View to a Kill,” from the James Bond movie of the same name, performed by Duran Duran, went to the top of the record charts, staying on top for two weeks. Both themes from James Bond movies, “Live and Let Die” by Wings and “Nobody Does It Better” by Carly Simon only reached number two on the record charts.
1986 – Top Hits
“Holding Back the Years” – Simply Red
“Invisible Touch” – Genesis
“Nasty” – Janet Jackson
“Hearts Aren’t Made to Break (They’re Made to Love)” – Lee Greenwood
1986 – Philadelphia Phillie Kent Tekulve broke the National League record for relief appearances for his 820th performance. He helped his team win in the 11-inning over the Houston Astros 5-4. The old record holder was Elroy Face of Pittsburgh.
1987 – Representatives of fifty of America’s largest record retailers are guests at Michael Jackson’s home in Encino, California to preview his new album, “Bad”. The LP, which includes the singles, “I Just Can’t Stop Loving You”, “Bad”, “The Way You Make Me Feel”, “Man in the Mirror” and “Dirty Diana”, would go on to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 200 chart and sell over 30 million copies worldwide.
1989 – A thunderstorm at Albany, GA, produced 1.40 inches of rain in forty minutes, along with wind gusts to 82 mph. Afternoon highs of 98 degrees at Corpus Christi, TX, 110 degrees at Tucson, AZ, and 114 degrees at Phoenix, AZ, equaled records for the date. Greenwood, MS, reported 55.65 inches of precipitation for the year, twice the amount normally received by mid-July.
1994 – Jeff Gillooly, former husband of skater Tonya Harding, was sentenced to 2 years for attacking rival Nancy Kerrigan.
1995 – Rush vocalist Geddy Lee sings “Oh Canada” before the All-Star Game at Baltimore’s Camden Yards.
1995 – The temperature in Chicago, Illinois reached its all-time high — 106 degrees (Fahrenheit) — recorded at Midway Airport.
1999 – Boston Red Sox pitcher Pedro Martinez became the first pitcher to open an All-Star Game with four strikeouts and fanned five in two dazzling innings to lead the American League to a 4-1 victory over the National League at Fenway Park.
2011 – Researchers revealed two studies showing the antiretroviral drugs prescribed to treat AIDS can also prevent HIV infections.
2013 – George Zimmerman was found not guilty in the case regarding the fatal shooting of Treyvon Martin.